Tense in Details। Tense কত প্রকার ও কিকি এবং ১২ টি Tense এর বিস্তারিত গঠন প্রণালী


👉ইংরেজি Grammar জানতে হলে Tense জানতে হবে।  Tense কাকে বলে, Tense কত প্রকার কিকি  এখানে বিস্তারিত আলোচনা করা হল যাতে খুব সহজে Tense in Details বা Tense  এর বিস্তারিত মনে রাখা সম্ভব হয়। 

👉Tense এর গঠন ভালোভাবে জানলে ইংরেজি লেখা (যেমনParagraph, story, composition বা dialogue-ইত্যাদি) বা বলা অনেক সহজ হয়ে যায়।

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Tense in Details।  Tense কত প্রকার ও কিকি।গঠন প্রনালী

Tenses in English।Tense কাকে বলে?

Tense বলতে আমরা কাজ সম্পন্ন হবার সময়কে বুঝি।  

Tense কত প্রকার কিকি?

Tense প্রকারঃ

1. Present Tense

2. Past Tense

3. Future Tense

এই প্রকারের প্রত্যেকটির আবার ৪টি করে ভাগ আছে। প্রকারভেদগুলো নিচে দেয়া হলঃ


·    Present

1

Present Indefinite/Simple Tense

2

Present Continuous/Progressive Tense  

3

Present  Perfect Tense 

4

Present  Perfect Continuous Tense

Past

1

Past Indefinite/Simple Tense

2

Past Continuous/Progressive Tense

3

Past Perfect Tense 

4

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Future

1

Future Indefinite/Simple Tense

2

Future Continuous/Progressive Tense

3

Future Perfect Tense 

4

Future Perfect Continuous Tense


এবার এই ১২ প্রকারের Tense in Details   আলোচনা করা হলঃ

         Present Indefinite/Simple Tense

যে Tense দ্বারা বর্তমান সময়ে কোন কাজ করা, কোন অভ্যাস বা চিরন্তন সত্য বোঝায় তাকে Present Simple Tense বলে।

(Present Simple Tense refers to any action at the present time, any habit or eternal truth)

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject +Verb (present) +Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject do not/does not+ verb(present form)+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Do/Does+subject+verb(present)+Object/Extension  

 মনে রাখবেন: Subject যদি Third Person singular number হয় তাহলে verb-এর সাথে s বা es যোগ করতে হয়।

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I go to school

I do not go to school

Do I go to school

2

He comes here

He does not come here

Does he come here

3

They do the work daily

They do not do the work daily

Do they do the work daily

4

You sleep at night

You do not sleep at night

Do you sleep at night

5

Peter walks slowly

Peter does not walk slowly

Does Peter walk slowly

                                               Past Indefinite/Simple Tense

অতীতে কোন কাজ কেউ করেছিল বা করা হয়েছিল বোঝালে Past Simple Tense বলে । 

( Past simple Tense means any work that was done in the past) 

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject +Verb (past form) +Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject did not+ verb(present form)+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Did+subject+verb(present)+Object/Extension 

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I went to school

I did not go to school

Did I go to school

2

He came here

He did not come here

Did he come here

3

They did the work 

They did not do the work

Did they do the work

4

You slept at night

You did not sleep at night

Did you sleep at night

5

Peter walked slowly

Peter did not walk slowly

Did Peter walk slowly


Future Indefinite/Simple Tense

ভবিষ্যতে কোন কাজ কেউ করবে বা হবে বোঝালে সেটা  Future Simple Tense.

 Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject +shall/will+Verb (present form) +Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject shall/will not+ verb(present form)+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Shall/will+subject+verb(present)+Object/Extension 

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I shall go to school

I shall not go to school

Shall I go to school

2

He will come here

He will not come here

Will he come here

3

They will do the work 

They will not do the work

Will they do the work

4

You will sleep at night

You will not sleep at night

Will you sleep at night

5

Peter will walk slowly

Peter will not walk slowly

Will Peter walk slowly


Present Continuous/Progressive Tense

বর্তমানে কোন কাজ কেউ করছে বা কোন কাজ চলছে বোঝালে তাকে
Present Continuous/Progressive Tense বলে। 

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject + am/is/are +Verb (present)+ing +Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject am not/is not/are not+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Am/is/are+subject+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension  

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I am going to school

I am not going to school

Am I going to school

2

He is coming here

He is not coming here

Is he coming here

3

They are doing the work

They are not doing the work

Are they doing the work

4

You are sleeping now

You are not sleeping now

Are you sleeping now

5

Peter is walking slowly

Peter is not walking slowly

Is Peter walking slowly

 

Past Continuous/Progressive Tense

অতীতে কেউ কোন কাজ করছিল বা কোন কাজ চলছিল বোঝালে তাকে Past Continuous/Progressive Tenseবলে।

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject + was/were +Verb (present)+ing +Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject +was not/were not+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Was/were+subject+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension  

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I was going to school

I was not going to school

Was I going to school

2

He was coming here

He was not coming here

Was he coming here

3

They were doing the work

They were not doing the work

Were they doing the work

4

You were sleeping then

You were not sleeping then

Were you sleeping then

5

Peter was walking slowly

Peter was not walking slowly

Was Peter walking slowly


Future Continuous/Progressive Tense

ভবিষ্যতে কোন কাজ কেউ করতে থাকবে বা কোন কাজ চলতে থাকবে বোঝালে তাকে Future Continuous/Progressive Tense বলে।

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject +shall be/will be+Verb (present)+ing +Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject+shall not be/will not be+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Shall/will+subject+be+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension  

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I shall be going to school

I shall  not be going to school

Shall I be going to school

2

He will be coming here

He will not be coming here

Will he be coming here

3

They will be doing the work

They will not be doing the work

Will they be doing the work

4

You will be sleeping 

You will not be sleeping 

Will you be sleeping 

5

Peter will be walking slowly

Peter will not be walking slowly

Will Peter walking slowly

 

Present Perfect Tense 

কোন কাজ খুব কাছের অতীতে শেষ হয়ে গেছে কিন্তু তার রেশটা এখনও বিদ্যমান বোঝালে তাকে Present Perfect Tense বলে। 

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject+have/has+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject+have not/has not+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Have/has+Subject+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I have gone to school

I have not gone to school

Have I gone to school

2

He has come here

He has not come here

Has he come here

3

They have done the work

They have not done the work

Have they done the work

4

You have slept

You have not slept

Have you slept

5

Peter has walked slowly

Peter has not walked slowly

Has Peter walked slowly

 

Past Perfect Tense

অতীতে দুটি কাজের মধ্যে প্রথম কাজটিকে Past Perfect Tense বলে।

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject+had+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject+had not+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Had+Subject+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I had gone to school

I had not gone to school

Had I gone to school

2

He had come here

He had not come here

Had he come here

3

They had done the work

They had not done the work

Had they done the work

4

You had slept

You had not slept

Had you slept

5

Peter had walked slowly

Peter had not walked slowly

Had Peter walked slowly

 

Future Perfect Tense   

ভবিষ্যতে দুটি কাজের মধ্যে প্রথম কাজটিকে Future Perfect Tense  বলে।

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence: Subject+will have+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject+will have not+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Will+Subject+have+Verb (past participle)+Object/Extension

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I shall have gone to school

I will not have  gone to school

Shall I have gone to school

2

He will have come here

He will not have  come here

Will he have come here

3

They will have done the work

They will not have  done the work

Will they have done the work

4

You will have slept

You will not have slept

Will you have slept

5

Peter will have walked slowly

Peter will not have  walked slowly

Will Peter have walked slowly

 

Present Perfect Continuous Tense

কোন কাজ অতীত থেকে শুরু হয়ে এখনও চলছে বোঝালে তাকে Present Perfect Continuous Tense বলে

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence:Subject+have been/has been

+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject+have not been/has not been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Have/has+Subject+been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I have been reading since 10 am

I have not been reading since 10 am

Have I been reading since 10 am

2

He has been writing for two hours

He has not been writing for two hours

Has he been writing for two hours

3

They have been doing the work for one hour

They have not been doing the work for one hour

Have they been doing the work for one hour

4

You have been sleeping since 1 pm

You have not been sleeping since 1 pm

Have you been sleeping since 1 pm

5

Peter has been walkingfor three hours

Peter has not been walkingfor three hours

Has Peter been walkingfor three hours

 

Past Perfect Continuous Tense

অতীতে ২টি কাজের মধ্যে প্রথম কাজটি ২য় কাজের পূর্ব পর্যন্ত চলছিল বোঝালে তাকে Past Perfect Continuous Tense বলে

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence:Subject+had been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject+had not been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Had+Subject+been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I had been reading since 10 am

I had not been reading since 10 am

Had I been reading since 10 am

2

He had been writing for two hours

He had not been writing for two hours

Had he been writing for two hours

3

They had been doing the work for one hour

They had not been doing the work for one hour

Had they been doing the work for one hour

4

You had been sleeping since 1 pm

You had not been sleeping since 1 pm

Had you been sleeping since 1 pm

5

Peter had been walkingfor three hours

Peter had not been walkingfor three hours

Had Peter been walkingfor three hours

 

Future Perfect Continuous Tense

ভবিষ্যতে ২টি কাজের মধ্যে ২য় কাজের পূর্ব পর্যন্ত প্রথম কাজ চলতে থাকবে বোঝালে তাকে Future Perfect Continuous Tense বলে

Structures: 

Affirmative Sentence:Subject+will have been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Negative Sentence: Subject+will have not been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Interrogative Sentence: Will+Subject+have 

been+Verb (present)+ing+Object/Extension

Examples:

 

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

1

I shall have been reading since 10 am

I shall not have been reading since 10 am

Shall I have been reading since 10 am

2

He will have been writing for two hours

He will not have been writing for three hours

Will he have been writing for two hours

3

They will have been doing the work for one hour

They will not have been doing the work for one hour

Will they have been doing the work for one hour

4

You will have been sleeping since 1 pm

You will not have been sleeping since 1 pm

Wiill you have been sleeping since 1 pm

5

Peter will have been walkingfor three hours

Peter will not have been walkingfor three hours

Will Peter have been walkingfor three hours


Tense in Details-এ এবার দেখেনি এক নজরে ১২ টি Tense-এর গঠন প্রনালী ও উদাহরণঃ


Name

বাংলা অর্থ

Structure

Examples

1

Present Indefinite

আসি, যায়, করে, পড়ে, বলে-ইত্যাদি   

Subject+Verb (Present Form)+Extension

1.I eat rice.

2.He plays football.

2

Past Indefinite

আসলাম, গিয়েছিলাম, করল, ধরেছিল- ইত্যাদি

Subject+Verb(Past Form) +Extension

1.I ate rice.

2.He played football

3

Future Indefinite

আসবে, যাবে, করব, পড়ব-ইত্যাদি

Subject+shall/Will+Verb(Present Form)+Extension

1. I shall eat rice.

2.He will play football.

4

Present Continuous

আসছে, যাচ্ছে, করছে, পড়ছে ইত্যাদি

Subject+am/is/are+Verb(Present Form)+ing+Extension

1.I am eating rice.

2.He is playing football.

5

Past Continuous

আসছিল, যাচ্ছিল, করছিল ইত্যাদি

Subject+was/were+Verb(Present Form)+ing+Extension

1.I was eating rice.

2.He was playing football.

6

Future Continuous

আসতে থাকবে, করতে থাকবে, পড়তে থাকবে-ইত্যাদি

Subject+shall/will be+Verb(Present Form)+ing+Extension

1.I shall be eating rice.

2.He will be playing football.

7

Present Perfect

এসেছে, গিয়েছে, করেছে ইত্যাদি

Subject+have/has+Verb(Past Participle)+Extension

1.I have eaten rice.

2.He has played football.

8

Past Perfect

অতীতে ২টি ঘটনার মধ্যে প্রথমটি। যেমন- সে আসার পূর্বে

 আমি কাজটি শেষ করলাম

Subject+had+Verb(Past Participle)+before+sub+verb(Past Form)

1.I had finished tense in details before he came.

2.I had finished the work before he came.

9

Future Perfect

ভবিষ্যতে ২টি ঘটনার মধ্যে প্রথমটি। যেমন- সে আসার পূর্বে

 আমি কাজটি শেষ করব 

1.Subject+shall/will have+(Past Participle)+before+Sub+Verb(Present Form)/will+verb(present form)

or

2.Subject+shall/will have+(Past Participle)+by+time

1. I will have finished the work before he comes/will come.

2. I shall have eaten rice by 1 pm. 

10

Present Perfect Continuous

কোন কাজ অতীত থেকে শুরু হয়ে একনও চলছে বোঝালে। যেমন- আমি ২ঘন্টা ধরে পড়ছি

1.Subject+have/has +been +Verb(Present Form) +ing+ for + hours/days/years 

2.Subject+have/has +been +Verb(Present Form) +ing+ since + নির্দিষ্ট সময়/বার/মাস/তারিখ/বছর বসবে।

1.I have been reading for 2 hours.

2.He has been living here since 2006.

11

Past Perfect Continuous

অতীতে ২টি কাজের মধ্যে প্রথম কাজটি ২য় কাজের পূর্ব

 পর্যন্ত চলছিল। যেমন-সে আসার পূর্ব পর্যন্ত আমি পড়ছিলাম

1.Subject+had +been +Verb(Present Form) +ing+ for +hours/days/years

2.Subject+had +been +Verb(Present Form) +ing+ before +Sub+Verb (Past Form)

1.I had been reading for 2 hours.

2.I had been doing the work before he came.

12

Future Perfect Continuous

ভবিষ্যতে ২টি কাজের মধ্যে+ ২য় কাজের পূর্ব পর্যন্ত প্রথম কাজ চলতে থাকবে। যেমন -সে আসার পূর্ব পর্যন্ত আমি পড়তে থাকব 

1. Subject+will have +been +Verb(Present Form) +ing+ +for  +hours/days/years

2. Subject+will have +been +Verb(Present Form) +ing+ +before +Sub+ Verb(Present Form)

1.I shall have been reading for 2 hours.

2. I will have been reading before he comes.

 

Tense in Details এখানে বিস্তারিত আলোচনা করা হলো। অনেক ধন্যবাদ। 

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